Suras 78-93

December 2020

78 Sura An-Naba’ (The Great News) Mecca

The Title: The news refers to the resurrection. “Concerning what are they disputing? Concerning the great news, About which they cannot agree. Verily, they shall soon (come to) know! Verily, verily they shall soon (come to) know!” (v 1-5) —– As in the previous suras the main subject is the torments of the lost and the joys of the believers.

Allah the Creator: “Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse, And the mountains as pegs? And (have We not) created you in pairs, And made your sleep for rest, And made the night as a covering, And made the day as a means of subsistence?” ( v 6-11 c/f v.16)

Allah the Judge at the coming judgement day: “Verily the day of sorting out is a thing appointed, The day that the trumpet shall be sounded, and ye shall come forth in crowds; And the heavens shall be opened as if there were doors, And the mountains shall vanish, as if they were a mirage” (v 17-20).

The punishment of unbelievers in hell: “Truly hell is as a place of ambush, For the transgressors a place of destination: They will dwell therein for ages. Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink, Save a boiling fluid and a fluid, dark, murky, intensely cold, A fitting recompense (for them)………. “So taste ye (the fruits of your deeds); for no increase shall We grant you, except in punishment.” (v 21 – 30)

The bliss of believers in heaven: “Verily for the righteous there will be a fulfilment of (the heart’s) desires; Gardens enclosed, and grapevines; And voluptuous women of equal age; And a cup full (to the brim). No vanity shall they hear therein, nor untruth:
Recompense from thy Lord, a gift, (amply) sufficient” (v 31-36).

79  Sura An-Nazi’at (Those who pull out) Mecca

The Title: The chapter derives its name from the first and second verses. “By the (angels) who tear out (the souls of the wicked) with violence; By those who gently draw out (the souls of the blessed).” (v 1, 2)  ——– The angels are the angels of death they and their assistants roughly pull out the souls of the wicked out of their bodies while they with gentle care draw out the souls of the believers from their bodies.

The coming day of judgement: Once again the principal subject of this sura is that Allah is the all-powerful and will judge unbelievers and believers. “One day everything that can be in commotion will be in violent commotion, Followed by oft-repeated (commotions): Hearts that day will be in agitation; Cast down will be (their owners’) eyes. They say (now): “What! shall we indeed be returned to (our) former state? “What! when we shall have become rotten bones?” They say: “It would, in that case, be a return with loss!” But verily, it will be but a single cry, When, behold, they will be in the awakening” (6-14)

The rejected Moses: Here, Muhammad once again identifies himself with Moses a former prophet, who like himself was rejected. “Has the story of Moses reached thee? Behold, thy Lord did call to him in the sacred valley of Tuwa: “Go thou to Pharaoh for he has indeed transgressed all bounds”……. Then did (Moses) show him the great sign. But (Pharaoh) rejected it and disobeyed; Further, he turned his back, striving hard (against Allah)………….. Verily in this is an instructive warning for whosoever feareth” (v 15-26).

Allah all-powerful in creation: “What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the heaven (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. Its night doth He endow with darkness, and its splendour doth He bring out (with light). And the earth, moreover, hath He extended; He draweth out there from its moisture and its pasture; And the mountains hath He firmly fixed; For use and convenience to you and your cattle” (v 27-33).

The rejecters fate will be hell-fire: “Therefore, when there comes the great, overwhelming (event), The day when man shall remember (all) that he strove for, And hell-fire shall be placed in full view for (all) to see, Then, for such as had transgressed all bounds, And had preferred the life of this world, The abode will be hell-fire” (v 34-39) The believers reward the garden: “And for such as had entertained the fear of standing before their Lord’s (tribunal) and had restrained (their) soul from lower desires, Their abode will be the garden” (v 40-41).

80 Sura ‘Abasa (He Frowned)

The Title: Three subjects seem to be the main theme of this chapter 1) the dignity of the Quran, 2) the Creation, 3) the judgement of believers and unbelievers. However, the chapter commences and owes its title to an incident where Muhammad failed to respond lovingly to a blind man.

Muhammad turns away from the blind man: “(The Prophet) frowned and turned away, Because there came to him the blind man” (v 1, 2). It is related that while Muhammad was conversing with the dignitaries of the Qurraish, a blind man, Abdullah ibn Umm Maktun, not knowing that Muhammad was in conversation, came and interrupted him by asking a question ‘Recite to me and teach me what Allah has taught you.’ Muhammad paid him no attention, only saying, “They will say that those who follow me are children, slaves and the lowly.” So, he frowned and turned away and attended to those with whom he was conversing. (Tabari) Later Allah reproved him. Muhammad is then reproved for showing favouritism: “As to one who regards Himself as self-sufficient, To him dost thou attend. Though it is no blame to thee if he grow not (in spiritual understanding). But as to him who came to thee striving earnestly, And with fear (in his heart), of him wast thou unmindful” (v 5-10).

The Quran claims to be a message of instruction: “For it is indeed a message of instruction …. (It is) in books held (greatly) in honour, exalted (in dignity), kept pure and holy, (written) by the hands of scribes honourable and pious and just” (v 11-16). The commentator Zamakhsahri states: ‘Being transcribed from the preserved tablet (Al-Buruj 85:21), kept pure and un-corrupt from the hands of evil spirits and touched only by the angels.’ Baidawi says: ’Angels wrote it, or prophets transcribed it from the preserved table, or by revelation, or the scribes wrote it by the revelation between God and His Prophet.’

The Muslim argument from Creation: Those who do not believe should look at how Allah has provided for him in Creation “Woe to man! What hath made him reject Allah; From what stuff hath He created him? From a sperm-drop: He hath created him, and then mouldeth him in due proportions; Then doth He make His path smooth for him…… Then let man look at his food, (and how We provide it) For that We pour forth water in abundance ….. And produce therein corn, And grapes and nutritious plants, And olives and dates, And enclosed gardens, dense with lofty trees………. ” (v 17-32).

The judgement of believers and unbelievers: “At length, when there comes the deafening noise…… Each one of them, that day, will have enough concern (of his own) to make him indifferent to the others. Some faces that day will be beaming, laughing, rejoicing. And other faces that day will be dust-stained, blackness will cover them: such will be the rejecters of Allah, the doers of iniquity” (v 33-42).

81 Sura At-Takwir (Folded up) 

The Title: Here Muhammad stresses that the Judgement Day will be a time when Nature will be in upheaval and the sun shall be folded up: “When the sun (with its spacious light) is folded up” (v 1).

Judgement Day: The cataclysmic events will affect the heavens above and the earth below “When the souls are sorted out” (v 1-7). On the day the scrolls are open to judge the works of men preparations are made for those going to hell and those going to Paradise: “When the blazing fire is kindled to fierce heat; and when the garden is brought near” (v 12, 13)

Female infanticide opposed by Muhammad: “When the female (infant), buried alive, is questioned for what crime she was killed?” (v 8) — It was customary for the ancient Arabs to bury their daughters alive as soon as they were born because they feared that they would become poor by having to provide for them. Zaid ibn Amr (died when Muhammad was about 35 years old) accepted neither Christianity nor Judaism but is recognised by Muslims as an hanif. He condemned the practice of burying infant daughters alive before the mission of Muhammad had begun (Ibn Hisham (d. A.D. 834) ‘The Life of Muhammad’).

Muhammad vindicates himself from the charge of madness and being possessed: Muhammad claims that while he was on Mount Hira a supernatural being appeared above him in the sky, he was standing on the horizon with one foot above another. Whichever way Muhammad turned the vision remained before him: “And without doubt he saw him in the clear horizon” (v 23) c/f Bukhari Volume 4, Book 54, Number 458.  ———– Initially Muhammad feared he had been visited by the jinn who had inspired earlier Arab poets to such a degree that they had become mentally unstable and possessed. His wife Khadijah comforted him believing that such a good person as he could not be possessed.

82 Sura al-Intfitar (The Cleaving)  Mecca

The Title: The title of the chapter is taken from verse one: “When the sky is cleft asunder.” No new subject is introduced in this chapter. The continual and repetitive subjects of the signs of a coming judgement day with their rewards and punishments once again pervade the chapter.

Signs of the coming judgement day: “When the sky is cleft asunder; When the stars are scattered; When the oceans are suffered to burst forth; And when the graves are turned upside down (Then) shall each soul know what it hath sent forward and (what it hath) kept back” (v 1-5).

Unbelievers deserving of judgement: “O man! What has seduced thee from thy Lord most beneficent? Him who created thee. Fashioned thee in due proportion, and gave thee a just bias; In whatever form He wills, does He put thee together. Nay! But ye do reject right and judgement!” (v 6-9)

The recording angels of man’s deeds: “But verily over you (are appointed angels) to protect you, Kind and honourable, Writing down (your deeds): They know (and understand) all that ye do” (v 10-12).

The consequences to believers and unbelievers on the judgement day: “As for the righteous, they will be in bliss; And the wicked they will be in the fire, Which they will enter on the day of judgement, And they will not be able to keep away there from. And what will explain to thee what the day of judgement is? Again, what will explain to thee what the day of judgement is? (It will be) the day when no soul shall have power (to do) aught for another: for the command, that day, will be (wholly) with Allah” (v 13-19).

The joy of the believers:  “Truly the righteous will be in bliss. On thrones will they command a sight: Thou wilt recognise in their faces the beaming brightness of bliss. Their thirst will be slaked with pure wine sealed: The seal thereof will be musk: And for this let those aspire, who have aspirations: With it will be (given) a mixture of Tasnim: A spring, from (the waters) whereof drink those nearest to Allah” (v 22-28). ——- Tasnim is the name of a fountain in Paradise.

A reversal of circumstances for believers: For the Muslim experiencing hardships in Mecca, there will be a reversal in fortunes. “Those in sin used to laugh at those who believed, And whenever they passed by them, used to wink at each other (in mockery); And when they returned to their own people, they would return jesting; And whenever they saw them, they would say, “Behold! These are the people truly astray!”……….. But on this day the believers will laugh at the unbelievers: On thrones they will command (a sight) (of all things). Will not the unbelievers have been paid back for what they did?” (v 29-36)

83 Sura Mutaffifin (Those Who Give Short Measure or Weight)

The Title: In this chapter a warning is given to those traders who deal fraudently. “Woe to those that deal in fraud, Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure, But when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due. Do they not think that they will be called to account? On a mighty day, A day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of the worlds?” (v 1-6)

Sijjin, the register of the acts of the wicked: Their wicked actions of fraud will be exposed in the deep dungeons of hell “Nay! Surely the record of the wicked is (preserved) in Sijjin. And what will explain to thee what Sijjin is? (There is) a register (fully) inscribed” (v 7-10).

Sijjin ‘prison’ is the name of the book in which the evil deeds of men and jinn are registered. It is also the name of the dungeon beneath the seventh earth, the residence of Iblis and his host.

Consequences of those who deny the judgement day: “Woe, that day, to those that deny those that deny the day of judgement. And none can deny it but the transgressor beyond bounds the sinner! When Our signs are rehearsed to him, he says, “Tales of the ancients!”………… “Verily, from (the light of) their Lord, that day, will they be veiled. Further, they will enter the fire of hell. Further, it will be said to them: “This is the (reality) which ye rejected as false” (v 10-17).

The believers shall enter ‘Illiyun: “Verily the record of the righteous is (preserved) in ‘Illiyun. And what will explain to thee what ‘Illiyun is? (There is) a register (fully) inscribed, To which bear witness those nearest” (v 18-21). ————– Illiyun is the seventh stage of celestial bliss and the register in which the good deeds of Muslims are said to be written. The Mishkat book 5 chapter 3 part 3 states that the angels follow the soul through each heaven, and the angels of one region pass it on to the next until it reaches the seventh heaven, when Allah says, ‘Write the name of my servant in ’Illiyun, and return him in the earth, that is, to his body which is in the earth.’

84 Sura Al-Inshiqaq (The Splitting Asunder) Mecca

The Title: “When the sky is rent asunder, And hearkens to (the command of) it’s Lord, and it must needs (do so)” (v 1) — Creation obeys Allah’s commands in the signs of judgement day “And when the earth is flattened out, And casts forth what is within it and becomes (clean) empty, And hearkens to (the command of) it’s Lord, and it must needs” (v 1-5)

The books of men’s actions: “Then he who is given his record in his right hand, soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning, And he will turn to his people, rejoicing But he who is given his record behind his back, soon will he cry for perdition, And he will enter a blazing fire. Truly, did he go about among his people, rejoicing! Truly, did he think that he would not have to return (to Us)! Nay, nay! for his Lord was (ever) watchful of him!” (v7 – 15) ———- Every person will be examined from his own book of deeds which will have all his deeds and works recorded. The righteous will receive their book in their right hand but the unrighteous will be forced to take their books in their left hands which will be bound behind their backs.

The denunciation of those who reject the Quran: “And when the Quran is read to them, they fall not prostrate, But on the contrary the unbelievers reject (it). But Allah has full knowledge of what they secrete (in their breasts) So announce to them a penalty grievous” (v 20-24).

85 Sura Al-Buruj (The Celestial Signs)   Mecca

The oath: “By the sky, (displaying) the Zodiacal Signs” (v 1)

Denunciation for those who persecute believers: This chapter has much to say about the persecutions suffered by the early Muslims. For those who vex the believers and reject the signs of Allah the torment of hell awaits them. “Woe to the makers of the pit, fire supplied with fuel. Behold! They sat over against the (fire), And they witnessed (all) that they were doing against the believers. And they ill-treated them for no other reason than that they believed in Allah …….. Those who persecute the believers, men and women, and do not turn in repentance, will have the penalty of hell: they will have the penalty of the burning fire” (v 4-14).

Some commentators say that these were Christian martyrs of Najran who rather than accepting Judaism were cast into a pit filled with fire and were burnt to ashes. Others say that it refers to the lengthy story of ‘the boy and the king’ found in Sahih Muslim, Volume 4, hadith number 7148.

Punishment of unbelievers who reject the Quran: Once again the stories of Pharaoh and the people of Thamud are held up as examples of those who rejected Allah in the past. “Has the story reached thee, of the forces of Pharaoh and the Thamud? And yet the unbelievers (persist) in rejecting! But Allah doth encompass them from behind!” (v 17-20)

The glorious Quran: “This is a glorious Quran, (inscribed) in a Tablet Preserved!” (v 21, 22) —– The original copy of the Quran is believed by Muslims to be preserved in heaven on what is called Lauh Mahfuz. This idea is taken from Judaism, where in the Book of Jubilees 5:13 it states that the laws relating to the purification of women after childbirth (Leviticus 12) were written on the tablets of heaven, the same is said also for the law regarding the ’feast of booths and the law of tithes. The tablet, Lauh Mahfuz, also contains all the judgements of Allah and his decrees are recorded with reference to mankind. Again the idea comes from Judaism where we find Enoch prophecies the future from the content of the tablets in heaven (Enoch 93:2; cf. 81; 103:2; 106:19).

86 Sura At-Tariq (The Night Star)

The Oath: “By the sky and the night-visitant; And what will explain to thee what the night-visitant is? (It is) the star of piercing brightness” (v 1-3). There is uncertainty as to what this bright star is which is the title of this chapter. Some take it to be just an ordinary bright star with no particular significance, while others give it a mystical sense and believe it refers to Muhammad himself. Still others believe it is a comet, which is said to have appeared in the sky around the time of the birth of Muhammad, while yet others consider that in this night sky verse scientific facts are being uncovered.

Every soul has a guardian angel: “There is no soul but has a protector over it.” (v 4)

God the Creator is able to bring man back to life again after he has died for Judgement: “Now let man but think from what he is created! He is created from a drop emitted proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs: Surely (Allah) is able to bring him back (to life)! The day that (all) things secret will be tested, (Man) will have no power, and no helper.” (v 5-10)

Allah, the greatest plotter: “As for them, they are but plotting a scheme, And I am planning a scheme. Therefore grant a delay to the unbelievers: Give respite to them gently (for a while)” (v 15-17). No secret is hid from him and no one can plot successfully against his messenger.

87 Sura Al-Ala (The Most High) 

The Title: This chapter declares that the Most High, the creator of all things, has given his revelation in nature and scripture. Allah as Creator, Most High, has ordained laws and granted guidance (v 1-5).

Muhammad will not forget his revelations except if Allah wills: “By degrees shall We teach thee to declare (the message), so thou shalt not forget, Except as Allah wills …. And We will make it easy for thee (to follow) the simple” (v 6-8).

Muhammad is said to have received his revelation in stages as this would aid his memory, however, on occasions he did forget some aspects of the revelation and this made the unbelievers in Mecca suspicious. These exceptions are revelations that have been abrogated or blotted out of the memory of Muhammad. Al-Itqan 3:74 written by al-Suyuti states that ‘Two men read a sura which the Apostle of Allah had taught them, yet one night they rose up to pray but failed to remember one word of it. The next morning, they went to the Apostle of Allah and related it to him. He told them, ‘It is one of those which have been abrogated, thus forget about it.’ Because of such behaviour the unbelievers said he does not receive inspiration but changes his mind whenever he wishes too, or he says I forgot this verse because Allah made me forget.

Those who fear Allah will receive the admonition: “The admonition will be received by those who fear (Allah)” (v 10)

Punishment awaits those who question Muhammad’s revelation: “But it will be avoided by those most unfortunate ones, Who will enter the great fire, In which they will then neither die nor live.” (v 11-13)

Islam believes that Muhammad’s revelation is the same as that given to Abraham and Moses: “And this is in the books of the earliest (revelation), the books of Abraham and Moses” (v 18, 19) ——- Muslims believe that the number of sacred books delivered to mankind is one hundred and four. Ten were given to Adam; fifty to Seth; thirty to Enoch; ten to Abraham; the Taurat to Moses; the Zabur to David; the Injil to Jesus and the Quran to Muhammad.

88 Sura al-Ghashiyah (The Overwhelming)  Mecca

The Title: The title in verse 1 of this chapter provides its main emphasis namely, the coming of the overwhelming last day when some will be in bliss while others will enter the blazing fire because of the way they have responded to the warnings of Muhammad. ”Has the story reached thee of the overwhelming (event)?
Those who enter the blazing fire: “Some faces, that day, will be humiliated, labouring (hard), weary, The while they enter the blazing fire, The while they are given, to drink, of a boiling hot spring, No food will there be for them but a bitter Dhari’ (bitter thorn fruit) which will neither nourish nor satisfy hunger”  (v 2-7)

Those who enter Heaven: “(Other) faces that day will be joyful, Pleased with their striving, In a garden on high, Where they shall hear no (word) of vanity: Therein will be a bubbling spring: Therein will be thrones raised on high, Goblets placed, and cushions set in rows, and rich carpets spread out” (v 8-16).
Muhammad must warn the unbelievers and Allah will reckon with them:
“Therefore do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish. Thou art not one to manage (men’s) affairs” (v 21-22); “But if any turn away and reject Allah, Allah will punish him with a mighty punishment, For to us will be their return; Then it will be for us to call them to account” (v 23-26).

89 Sura Al-Fajr (The Dawn)

The Title: is taken from the first verse: “By the break of day”for there will be the dawn of the judgement day and those, especially the wealthy, who have not sent ahead their good deeds into heaven will face punishment.

Judgement fell on the previous nations who rejected Allah’s messengers: Those identified for judgement are the People of ‘Ad (v 6-8) The People of Thamud (v 9) and Pharaoh (v.10): “(All) these transgressed beyond bounds in the lands, And heaped therein mischief (on mischief). Therefore did thy Lord pour on them a scourge of diverse chastisements, For thy Lord is on a watch-tower” (v 11-14). Allah is likened to a watchman observing all the evil actions of men.

Denunciation of the wealthy who care not for the unfortunate: “Now, as for man, when his Lord trieth him……..  Nay, nay! but ye honour not the orphans! Nor do ye encourage one another to feed the poor! And ye devour inheritance all with greed, And ye love wealth with inordinate love!” (v 15-20)

The Judgement Day will certainly come and the need to perform good deeds before that day: “Nay! When the earth is pounded to powder, And thy Lord cometh, and His angels, rank upon rank, And hell, that day, is brought (face to face), on that day will man remember, but how will that remembrance profit him He will say: “Ah! Would that I had sent forth (good deeds) for (this) my (future) life!” For, that day, His chastisement will be such as none (else) can inflict, And His bonds will be such as none (other) can bind” (v 21-26).

Believers of Islamic monotheism will enter heaven: “(To the righteous soul will be said) “O (thou) soul, in (complete) rest and satisfaction! “Come back thou to thy Lord, well pleased (thyself), and well-pleasing unto Him! “Enter thou, then, among my devotees! “Yea, enter thou My Heaven!” (v 27-29)

90 Sura Al-Balad (The City) Mecca

The Oath: In many suras oaths are found at the beginning and they are founded on created things. Here, Allah swears by the city of Mecca. Suppose you are called as a witness in court, and instead of placing your hands on the Bible or the Quran you swear by the fig or the olive, the pen or the star that what you are going to say is the truth. Will the judge accept your testimony? Allah, rather than swearing by his own character swears by these created materials declaring he is telling the truth.

The city of Mecca: “I do call to witness this city. And thou art a freeman of this city” (v 1). The most sacred city of the Muslims. It was the birth place of Muhammad and the site of the Ka’aba. Muhammad expressed his great love for the city and said “It is not man but God who has made Mecca sacred” and again, “My people will always be safe in this world and the next as long as they respect Mecca.”

The Judgement Day: The main theme is once again the judgement day; those who believe the signs of Allah and practice charity (v 14-18) will receive their book in the right-hand but those who reject the signs will be forced to accept their book in the left-hand and will be surrounded by fire: “But those who reject Our signs, they are the (unhappy) companions of the left hand. On them will be fire vaulted over” (v 19, 20).

91 Sura Ash-Shams (The Sun)  (Mecca

The Title: This sura is so named because Allah makes an oath by the sun and by many other created things (v 1-7). With this array of oath taking are we going to find here something new, great and wonderful? If we are expectant of such we will be disappointed, for there is nothing extraordinary found here. We do however, acknowledge some poetical beauty in the Quran, Muhammad, being a master in eloquence cast his language of nature in the most persuasive style of Arabian oratory.

Those who obey and those who reject the Quran: “And its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right; Truly he succeeds that purifies it, And he fails that corrupts it!” (v 9 – 10)

Destruction of the people of Thamud who rejected Allah’s messenger: “The Thamud (people) rejected (their prophet) through their inordinate wrong-doing …………. So their Lord, on account of their crime, obliterated their traces and made them equal!” (v 11-14).

92 Sura Al-Lail (The Night)

The Title and Oath: On this occasion Allah swears “By the night as it conceals (the light); By the day as it appears in glory; By (the mystery of) the creation of male and female” (v 1-3).

Promise of reward to those who give alms, fear Allah and profess Islam: “So he who gives (in charity) and fears (Allah), And testifies to the best, We will indeed make smooth for him the path to bliss” (v 5-7). The circumstances in which this surah was said to be revealed can be found in Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 472.

Punishment on the miser and those who reject the message: “But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient, And gives the lie to the best, We will indeed make smooth for him the path to misery” (v 8-10). This verse is thought by some to have one particular person in mind.

The need to warn unbelievers: “Therefore do I warn you of a fire blazing fiercely; None shall reach it but those most unfortunate ones who give the lie to truth and turn their backs” (v 14-16).

Rewards for those who spend their wealth in Allah’s way: “Those who spend their wealth for increase in self-purification, And have in their minds no favour from anyone for which a reward is expected in return, But only the desire to seek for the countenance of their Lord Most High; And soon will they attain satisfaction” (v 18-21). —— Jallaluddin thinks that these verses describe Abu Bakr, for when he had purchased the freedom of Bilal, the Ethiopian, who had been put on the rack on account of his faith, the unbelievers accused him of doing it for his own personal interest; therefore these verses were revealed.

93 Sura Ad-Duha (The Morning Bright) (Mecca)

The Title: is taken from the first verse “By the glorious morning light, And by the night when it is still.” This is an intensely personal chapter, for Muhammad had experienced an interval of time in which he had received no revelation and opposition had increased. Tirmidhi, (one of the six Sunni canonical hadith compilations) records a Tradition to the effect that the Quarraish had said that God had forsaken the prophet. In this moving and melodious sura he now is said to have received that much needed encouragement.

Allah did not forsake Muhammad: “Thy Guardian-Lord hath not forsaken thee, nor is He displeased. And verily the hereafter will be better for thee than the present. And soon will thy Guardian-Lord give thee thou shalt be well-pleased.” (v 3-5). The revelations had now ceased for two and a half years. This plunged Muhammad into despair. He became convinced that Allah considered him to be an object of reproach and had forsaken him. He often went to a precipice on Mount Hira with the intention of jumping off.

Muhammad was an orphan who was guided into the truth: “ Did He not find thee an orphan and give thee shelter (and care)?” And He found thee wandering, and He gave thee guidance. And He found thee in need, and made thee independent” (v 3-8). This is the only sura we find mention that Muhammad had been an orphan. Muhammad’s father, Abdullah, died in Medina at the age of only twenty-five years and later he lost his mother Amina who died and was buried at a place called Abwa. The little orphan was carried back to Mecca by Omm Ayman, who was his constant faithful nurse and attendant. In his seventh year he could appreciate the bereavement and feel the desolation of his orphan state. Here he reassured himself by remembering that despite being an orphan Allah had been merciful and provided a refuge.  —– On his pilgrimage from Medina to Hodeiybia he visited his mother’s tomb, and he lifted up his voice and wept, and his followers likewise wept around him. And they asked him concerning it, and he said: ‘This is the grave of my mother: the Lord hath permitted me to visit it. And I sought leave to pray for her salvation, but it was not granted. So I called my mother to remembrance, and the tender memory of her overcame me, and I wept.’

Muhammad exhorted to be charitable and preach: “Therefore, treat not the orphan with harshness, Nor repulse the petitioner (unheard); But the bounty of the Lord rehearse and proclaim!” (v 9-11)

Individual Eschatology concerns the condition of the individual between his death and the general resurrection at the close of the age.

December 2020

The Mahdi literally means “the guided one”, and has come to mean in an individual way, the divinely guided one. While Allah himself is called al-Hadi in the Quran (Al-Hajj 22:54; Al-Furqan 25:31) the figure of al-mahdi or mahdi, and his mission is not mentioned at all. Islam uses the term of certain individuals in the past and of an eschatological individual in the future. The Mahdi is interpreted differently by Sunnis and Shi’a although both look for one who will arise to restore the purity of Islam and usher in a Golden Age in which Islamic revelation will reign in the ideal community, the umma.

There is a general belief amongst Muslims that the living Muhammad intercedes for them at the throne of God. The Wahhabi’s state that the intercession of their Prophet is only by the permission of Allah on the Last Day and that there will be no intercession for sins until the Day of Judgement. In principle the Quran denies that there is an intercessor with Allah. However, there are a few passages which suggest that under certain circumstances Allah does allow someone to intercede. It seems that Muhammad’s intercession is available for the Muslim as he/she invokes the blessings of Allah upon the Prophet.

The appearance of the Anti-Christ (ad-Dajjal)

Resurrection and the Last Judgement Al-Qiyama

December 2020

Questions and Answers about the Second Coming of Christ which are held by orthodox Muslims

Both the Quran and Tradition present their picture of ‘Isa. They give him a high place among the prophets; they affirm his sinless-ness; they affirm he had power to work miracles but all this does not distinguish Him in any way as to its nature from the other prophets who came before him.

The Quran recognises that David glorified and praised God. The mountains and the birds alternated with him in these praises (Al-Anbiya 21:79, Saba’ 34:10, Sa’d 38:18). Muhammad, it seems, took literally the passages where creatures and elements joined David in their praises so it seems that when David was fatigued Allah caused other parts of nature, both animate and inanimate to relieve him. David is presented as a model Muslim, praising Allah, fasting, prostrating, acting justly and fighting for the honour of Allah

The title Tawrat is given in the Quran and all Muslim works for the Book of Moses (in Hebrew Torah stands for ‘the Law’). The term tawrat is found in the Medina period. Muslim scholars accept that the Tawrat teaches the unity of God yet believe it falls short of the full revelation as it does not give an account of the stated method of prayers (Al-Fath 48:29), the fast, a detailed description of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem and alms-giving, nor is there anything regarding heaven and hell. For these reasons the Tawrat is said to have been altered by the Jews.